Educational and Labor Market Issues: A case for the Transgender of Pakistan




Muhammad Afzan Munira  and Salman Abdullahb


Independent Researcher,Pakistan 


Aitchison College, Lahore,Pakistan


(Received 13 June 2019, Final Revised Version Received 20 December 2019)


This paper explores the issues that the third gender faces in terms of education and labor market opportunities in Pakistan in the Post “Transgender Protection of Rights Bill 2018” scenario. The findings, based on a qualitative study involving detailed unstructured interviews with 15 self-identified transgender individuals and a focus group discussion with five more transgender individuals, suggest that transgender are discriminated against in all walks of life. They are discouraged from getting an education, both by people in the family home and those at school. Transgender face severe discrimination not only from their fellow students but also from their teachers, which discourages them to continue their education. In addition to this, one of the principle reasons for failure to secure a respectable job was identified to be their lack of education and the skills required for such jobs. Similarly, discrimination and harassment in the workplace also play a key role in a lack of jobs for transgender. Lastly, the paper provides policy recommendations for catering to transgenders’ needs and addressing the issues faced by the transgender community of Pakistan.


Keywords: Transgender; Khawaja sara; Pakistan; Education; Labor Market; Issues.

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